Công cụ ủy quyền (delegation) RACI

Bên cạnh thẻ bài ủy quyền (Delegatin Board), một công cụ khác được đưa ra là RACI bằng cách điền rõ quyền hạn của mỗi người tương đương với mỗi việc trên một ma trận như hình dưới:


Trong đó

  • R - Responsible: Người thực hiện, người làm cho công việc đó hoàn thành.
  • A - Accountable: Người chịu trách nhiệm giải trình công việc này, việc hỏng thì tội hàng đầu.
  • Consulted: Tư vấn, tham mưu cho công việc.
  • Informed: Cần phải nắm thông tin của công việc này.

Lưu ý

  • Đảm bảo rằng mỗi việc phải có ít nhất 1 người R và luôn có một và chỉ một người A.
  • Owner = Accountable + Improvement, có thêm nhiệm vụ improve công việc.

Một vài công cụ thay thế khác


This is an early version[8] of a Responsibility Assignment Matrix, with the roles defined as:



Review Required

Input Required

Sign-off Required


This is a version very useful to organizations where the output of activities under the accountability of a single person/function can be reviewed and vetoed by multiple stakeholders, due to the collaborative nature of the culture.


The person/function carrying out the activity.


The person/function ultimately answerable for the correct and thorough completion of the deliverable or task, and often the one who delegates the work to the performer.


The person/function reviewing the result of the activity. He or she has a right of veto; his or her advice is binding.


The person/function consulted to give advice based upon recognized expertise. The advice is non-binding.


The person/function who must be informed of the result of the activity.


This is an expanded version[9] of the standard RACI, less frequently known as RASCI ,[10] breaking the responsible participation into:


Those responsible for the task, who ensure that it is done as per the approver


Resources allocated to responsible . Unlike consulted , who may provide input to the task, support helps complete the task.


This is an alternative version[11][12] of the standard RACI, foregoing the consulted participation and replacing it with:


Resources which play a supporting role in implementation.


This is an expanded version of the standard RACI, with an additional participation type:

Quality Review

Those who check whether the product meets the quality requirements.


This is an expanded version[4] of the standard RACI, with two additional participation types:


Those who check whether the product meets the acceptance criteria set forth in the product description.


Those who approve the verify decision and authorize the product hand-off. It seems to make sense that the signatory should be the party being accountable for its success.


This is an expanded version,[13] of the standard RACI, also known as RACIO [14] with one additional participation type.

Out of the loop (or omitted )

Designating individuals or groups who are specifically not part of the task. Specifying that a resource does not participate can be as beneficial to a task’s completion as specifying those who do participate.


Another version that has been used to centralize decision making, and clarify who can re-open discussions.[15]


A single driver of overall project like the person steering a car.


One or more approver s who make most project decisions, and are responsible if it fails.


Are the worker-bees who are responsible for deliverables; and with whom there is two-way communication.


Those who are impacted by the project and are provided status and informed of decisions; and with whom there is one-way communication.


Another tool used to clarify decision roles and thereby improve decision making overall is RAPID® , which was created by and is a registered trademark of Bain & Company.


The Recommend role typically involves 80 percent of the work in a decision. The recommender gathers relevant input and proposes a course of action—sometimes alternative courses, complete with pros and cons so that the decision maker’s choices are as clear, simple and timely as possible.


The Agree role represents a formal approval of a recommendation. The ‘A’ and the ‘R’ should work together to come to a mutually satisfactory proposal to bring forward to the Decider. But not all decisions will need an Agree role, as this is typically reserved for those situations where some form of regulatory or compliance sign-off is required.


The Perform role defines who is accountable for executing or implementing the decision once it is made. Best-practice companies typically define P’s and gather input from them early in the process


The Input role provides relevant information and facts so that the Recommender and Decider can assess all the relevant facts to make the right decision. However, the ‘I’ role is strictly advisory. Recommenders should consider all input, but they don’t have to reflect every point of view in the final recommendation.


The Decide role is for the single person who ultimately is accountable for making the final decision, committing the group to action and ensuring the decision gets implemented.


Another tool used in organisation design or roles analysis.


Identify who is in charge of making sure the work is done.


Identify who has final decision power on the work.


Identify who actually does the work.


Identify who is involved to provide support to the work.


Identify who is informed that the work has been done (or will be started)


A variant of RASCI developed by three Whitehall theorists (Kane, Jackson, Gilbert). This scheme is adapted for use in matrix management environments, and differs only from RASCI in having an additional role of Driver and a narrower definition of Support :


An individual or party that assists those who are Responsible for delivering a task by both producing supporting collateral and setting timescales for delivery in line with the overarching aim of the individual or party who is Accountable for the overall accomplishment of the objective. The distinction between Driver and Support lies in that the former reinforces and clarifies the parameters of the task on behalf of those who are Accountable , while the latter refers to those who help those who are Responsible in reaching a given goal. [16]


A version developed at U Tokyo and MIT for model-based project management. The PDQA set of roles corresponds to demand for capabilities of teams. Roles include those for work on scope, handling of dependencies as coordination, and exception handling through error detection and decisions across a project organization. PDQA is used in agent based modeling to simulate the supply of these capabilities by teams in projects.


Provides skill-based effort within capacity to complete scope and also manages dependencies through coordination.


Handles any decision, including scope acceptable and exception handling decisions leading to rework.(Does not generation nominal scope).


Reviews scope as it progresses to detect poor quality and escalates to decision maker as so. (Does not general nominal scope).


Provides skill based effort with capacity to complete scope, in assistance to the primary. (Does not manage dependencies through coordination).


A minimal set of decision making categories used in organisation design or roles analysis.

Decision Maker

Individual(s) who makes the decision and is accountable for its impact on the business.


Individual(s) accountable for providing guidance based on functional expertise and experience, highlighting issues and raising alternatives to support the Decision Maker.


Impacted stakeholder(s) are notified after the decision has been made and who will need to support the execution of the decision.


To be used when working on governance, risk, compliance (GRC) and outsourcing matters:

R Responsible

A Accountable

S Support

C Consult

E Execute (for 3rd parties contracted to execute activities in accordance with a service level agreement)

I Inform

O Overview (for key GRC roles, such as risk owner, policy owner - where accountability is devolved, but a role is needed to oversee whether accountabilities all fit together)

1 Like

Công cụ này chính là cái trước @jackie mention đấy nhỉ?