[Luyện thi] Magento Solution Specialist - Lesson 1 (part 2)

Tiếp nối bài trước mình đang viết dở nhé. Vì stories chỉ cho max là 3000 chữ.

Phần 1. Cover nội dung cho Online Merchandising & Security

Phần 2: sẽ cover nội dung User Experience & Law/Regulation

User Experience

  • Usability principles and issues in ecommerce
  • Building a good user experience in ecommerce - best practices
  • Navigation best practices

1. What is the difference between Usability & User Experience

According to ISO, they define:

Usability: the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction with which specified users achieve specified goals in particular environments.

User Experience: a person’s perceptions and responses that result from the use or anticipated use of a product, system or service.

A Case of Good Usability & Bad User Experience

A customer arrives on the landing page for a product she wants to buy. She is able to add the product to her shopping cart quickly and easily, and checkout without minimal effort. The page would score high on a usability scale.

But the shopper was hoping to get a better sense of the product by looking at images taken from different angles and reading customer reviews, and she wasn’t sure that the retailer was reputable. Without the images, reviews and credibility assurances, the customer was left with certain fears, uncertainties and doubts (FUDS) about buying from this particular site. This page would score low on a user experience scale

→ Usability comes first. You can have good usability without good UX. If your site isn’t efficient and easy to use, it will never provide good UX

Usability in Ecommerce:

  • Make sure your load time is fast

  • Keep navigation simple and functional

  • Automate your search

  • Landing Page Usability & Checkout Usability

(Read more here: https://www.invespcro.com/blog/7-guidelines-for-ecommerce-usability/ )

Landing Page Usability:

  • Minimize content
  • Organize content
  • Design for Usability (Headline/Image/Pricing/Stock left/Details/Review/…)
  • Clear CTA

Checkout Usability

  • Simplify checkout process
  • Get only information that you need (avoid asking twice)
  • Save cart function
  • Use clear error indications at check out

2. Build good UX in ecommerce

Good articles to read about UX for ecommerce. https://uxplanet.org/ux-design-for-e-commerce-principles-and-strategies-9df7d81e59d8

Key element of UX in ecommerce

  • Checkout Process
  • Don’t push the customer a thing they don’t want (sign up or register for newsletter)
  • Search Function: Easily & Effectively
  • Homepage: customer’s starting point, make sure that your navigation is nice and clear
  • Good visual (photo, 360 photo, demonstrative video)
  • Video review/instruction
  • User Generated content (testimonial, real image uploaded by customers)
  • Secure Payment (SSL Certificate)

Be aware of CES - Client Effort Score

Type of customer satisfaction metric that measures the ease of an experience with a company by asking customers, on a five-point scale of "Very Difficult" to "Very Easy," how much effort was required on the part of the customer to use the product or service to evaluate how likely they are to continue using and paying for it.

20 common UX mistakes in ecommerce

  1. Limited Product Info
  2. Use Video in Product Page (not a miss)
  3. Bad Customer Service Display
  4. Poor Product Image
  5. Contact Detail is limited/not clear
  6. Long checkout (require a lot of steps)
  7. Compulsory Account
  8. One Image Only
  9. Not Good site search
  10. Only a few shipping option
  11. Do not state shipping rate at first
  12. Weak shopping cart layout
  13. Doesn’t have related product
  14. Unclear site navigation
  15. Not stating clear store policy
  16. Keeping focus away (customer should focus on the most important part of a page)
  17. Doesn’t have responsive version (not mobile friendly)
  18. Not social media integrated
  19. Re-use product description from the provider (should be copywritten on your own branding voice)
  20. Leaving out security

3. Navigation Best Practices

  1. BreadCumb (to tell exactly the path for a page from homepage)

  1. Mobile Navigation (pay attention to mobile if you get high traffic from mobile)

  2. Top 4 Navigation practices for ecommerce

  • Use Relevant Labels
  • Make Top-level Navigation Clickable, Tappable

Understand the difference among:

  • Dropdowns – These menus appear as your cursor rolls over the main product label

  • Mega menu – A dropdown menu that also contains product content, as text or images

  • Flyout menus – A horizontal version of a dropdown menu

  • Follow Design Conventions

(7 web design convention that you should not break) https://blog.htc.ca/2013/09/03/web-design-conventions/

  1. Logo Placement (on the left)
  2. Main Navigation (on top)
  3. Link Styling (clickable)
  4. Button Functionality
  5. Standard Icon
  6. Visual Hierarchy
  7. Clear Naming
  • Include a Search Function


1. Disability compliance issues (ADA and its international equivalents)

ADA - Americans with Disabilities Actand requires that “places of public accommodation” be accessible to the disabled. Most businesses operating some form of physical facility open to the public understand their obligations to make those physical facilities accessible

•Serious issues with potential litigation:"Depending on the state, the business owner can be looking at a $50,000 bill."

•Websites will need to be handicap accessible: Ensure your website is ADA compliant

ensuring that another crucial aspect of their company complies with the ADA: client-facing websites. Alleged shortcomings can include failure to provide closed captioning for videos, alternative text for images, and compatibility of websites with screen reader technology

2. Accessible technology

Common barriers to web accessibility are (a) incompatibility with speech recognition or screen reading software, (b) lack of text-based alternatives to media content, © poor color contrast or small text size, and (d) transaction timing requirements that do not take into account intellectual disabilities. What does it mean to have an accessible website? At the most basic level, an accessible website would have these (and other) accessible elements:

•Provides text alternatives for any non-text content;

•Provides alternatives for time-based media;

•Includes content that can be presented in different ways without losing information or structure;

•Is easy to see and hear, including separating foreground from background;

•Permits all functionality from a keyboard if needed (as opposed to a cursor);

•Permits sufficient time to read and use content;

•Is not designed in a way that is known to cause seizures;

•Includes ways to help users navigate, find content, and determine where they are;

•Includes text content that is readable and understandable;

•Operates and appears in predictable ways;

•Helps users avoid and correct mistakes; and

•Is compatible with current and future user agents, including assistive web technologies

Here are just some common ways businesses address accessibility issues on their websites:

•Create alt tags for all images, videos and audio files: Alt tags allow users with disabilities to read or hear alternative descriptions of content they might not otherwise be able to view. Alt tags describe the object itself and, generally, the purpose it serves on the site.

•Create text transcripts for video and audio content: Text transcripts help hearing impaired users understand content that would otherwise be inaccessible to them.

•Identify the site’s language in header code: Making it clear what language the site should be read in can help users that utilize text readers. Text readers can identify those codes and are able to function accordingly.

•Offer alternatives and suggestions when users encounter input errors: If a user with a disability is encountering input errors because of their need to navigate the website differently, your site should automatically offer recommendations to them as to how to better navigate toward the content they need.

•Create a consistent, organized layout: Menus, links and buttons should be organized in such a way that they are clearly delineated from one another and are easily navigated throughout the entire site.

Businesses are required to comply with the ADA?

Under Title I of the ADA, any business with at least 15 full-time employees that operates for 20 or more weeks every year is covered by the law.

Under Title III, businesses that fall into the category of "public accommodations," such as hotels, banks and public transportation, are also required to comply.

Reasons Your Website Should Be ADA Compliant

ADA Compliance Increases Your Target Audience

ADA Compliance Improves Your SEO Efforts

ADA Compliance May Help Your Reputation

ADA Compliance Means Overall Better Website Usability

You Can Avoid Penalties

5 Steps to Make Sure Your Website Is ADA-Compliant

2. US and EU privacy and data protection regulations

•California and Nevada require a privacy policy

In July 2018, California passed the most sweeping of all privacy laws in the US, the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (effective from 1 January 2020). The law provides consumers with several new rights, including the right to:
Require the deletion of their data.
Request disclosures of information about how information is collected and shared.
Instruct a company not to sell their data.
There is also a private right of action for individuals to pursue violators, which will likely lead to significant class action law suits in California. This is a complicated law that remains subject to potential revisions before the 2020 implementation

Reference: https://uk.practicallaw.thomsonreuters.com/6-502-0467?transitionType=Default&contextData=(sc.Default)&firstPage=true&comp=pluk&bhcp=1 date.

•Pennsyvanie and Nebraska say it’s wrong to make false or misleading statements in a privacy policy

•EU: Impact of New EU Privacy Law on US E-Commerce Businesses

A company headquartered in the US uses its online store to sell products to customers located in the European Union (“EU”). Prices are displayed in euros, and the company offers international delivery to the EU. The US-based general counsel wants to know more on how the company’s e-commerce activities will be affected by the EU General Data Protection Regulation.

  1. What is the EU General Data Protection Regulation?

The General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") introduces a new privacy framework in the EU and will come into force on May 25, 2018. The GDPR will replace existing EU data protection laws and bring about significant changes and requirements that will have a wide-ranging impact worldwide on the way organizations handle and use data.

The GDPR is a real game changer for e-commerce businesses and online stores. Those companies, by their nature, receive and process a vast amount of personal data and have cross-border activities.

GDPR considerations for e-commerce businesses. The GDPR will expand the reach of EU data privacy law and will apply to a broader range of US companies than the current EU does. GDPR will require companies to obtain freely given, specific, informed, and unambiguous consent before collecting personal data (i.e., information relating to an identified or an identifiable natural person, including a unique device ID or location data) from an EU resident.

EU GDPR requires new mechanisms to give data subjects control over personal data. In addition, the GDPR will give EU residents certain rights, such as the right to request removal of personal data that they have posted online and the right to data portability. Specifically, a company will be required to remove, erase, or otherwise delete the personal data of an EU resident upon request, subject to some exceptions, if, among other things, the data are no longer necessary for the purpose for which they were collected; or the EU resident withdraws consent or objects to the processing, and there is no other legitimate basis to continue processing. In addition, a company will have to, at an EU resident’s request, transfer that resident’s personal data in a structured, machine-readable format to another company. U.S. companies will have to build this functionality into their systems and databases.

The main issues that companies engaged in e-commerce should take into account when implementing policies and procedures in compliance with the GDPR are related to:

  1. The territorial scope

​The GDPR will apply to organizations established outside of the EU when they process personal data in connection with: (a) the offering of goods or services to an individual in the EU and/or (b) the monitoring of the behavior of an individual in the EU. As a consequence, companies that offer products and services to individuals in the EU via their websites or other online platforms will now have to comply with EU data protection rules. The mere accessibility of the company’s website from the EU will not be sufficient to trigger the application of the GDPR. For the new regulation to apply, the company must clearly intend to offer services to individuals located in the EU, for instance by mentioning EU currency, by referencing EU customers or by presenting ordering information in an EU language (when this is not the language generally used in the country where the company is based).

  1. Legal basis for processing

​Companies will need to identify a legal ground for their processing activities. In this regard, the main change introduced by the GDPR relates to consent, which now requires a clear affirmative action by the data subject—silence, pre-ticked boxes, inactivity, failure to opt-out or other such mechanisms will not be enough to qualify as valid consent. E-commerce businesses should keep in mind that the GDPR allows for processing of personal data on other legal grounds, including if the processing is necessary for the performance of a contract with the data subject. This legal basis applies to data required to process an online payment or deliver the purchased product. In such cases, there is no need to get consent. Companies seeking to rely on such alternative grounds should conduct a necessity test to determine if only the information necessary for the purposes of the contract is being collected. When requiring other personal data (e.g., personal data for use beyond the primary purpose of processing a payment, filling an order, delivering the purchased good, etc.), the company will need to identify another legal basis (e.g., consent or legitimate interest). This is especially relevant when customer data are used for marketing or advertising purposes.

  1. Retention periods

Under the GDPR, personal data should not be retained longer than necessary. As a consequence, companies should delete personal data when the purpose of the processing has been achieved. For example, personal data collected when a good is purchased should be deleted at the end of the contract. However, companies might want to keep all or some of the data. In those circumstances, companies should find other grounds for keeping the data—for example, the need to retain to comply with legal requirements that might apply under national law.

  1. Privacy notices

The GDPR requires companies to inform data subjects on how their personal data are being processed. Specific information must be provided, such as the purpose and the legal basis for processing, whether personal data are shared with third parties, if the company conducts profiling activities, etc. E-commerce businesses will have to provide data privacy notices at the time personal data are obtained. For this purpose, a link to the terms and conditions and to the privacy notice of the company should be displayed when the customer purchases goods online, and privacy notices may need to be updated to comply with the GDPR.

  1. Data subjects’ rights

The GDPR strengthens data subjects’ rights. It introduces new rights such as the right to be forgotten, the right to data portability and the right to restrict the processing. Companies should also allow their customers to exercise these rights. And to comply with their obligations, online stores and e-commerce businesses should ensure that customers are in control of their personal data, being able to access and modify the data. To facilitate meeting these requirements, companies should provide information on whom customers can contact regarding their data privacy concerns.

  1. Contracts with third parties and international transfers

Companies involved in e-commerce activities often outsource components of these activities, such as payments, marketing or IT. Under the GDPR, whenever a data controller (the e-commerce company) uses a processor (a third party who processes personal data on behalf of the controller), the controller needs to have a written contract in place that includes certain specific terms such as data processed and duration, obligations such as data breach reporting and audit assistance, use of technical measures, etc. Outsourcing agreements should be reviewed and, where necessary, renegotiated to ensure that companies are appropriately supervising the manner in which they process personal data and that the specific required provisions are included. When service providers are located outside the EEA (European Economic Area), legal mechanisms for carrying out personal data transfers should also be identified


Phần GDPR quan trọng nhưng đang bị hơi dài và khó hiểu, nếu sụmmarize được bằng hình ảnh hay kiểu short description thì @emmy thử edit nhé ^^